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Fixed points for Gcontractions on uniform spaces endowed with a graph
Fixed Point Theory and Applications volume 2012, Article number: 182 (2012)
Abstract
In this paper, we generalize some main results of (Jachymski in Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 136:13591373, 2008) from metric to uniform spaces endowed with an ℰdistance and a graph using a new type of contractions by employing a class of nondecreasing functions.
MSC:47H10, 05C40.
1 Introduction and preliminaries
In 2004, the concepts of ℰdistance and Scompleteness were introduced for uniform spaces in [1]. Recently in 2008, Jachymski [2] proved some fixed point results in metric spaces endowed with a graph and generalized simultaneously the Banach contraction principle from metric and partially ordered metric spaces. In 2010, Bojor [3] introduced (G,\phi )contractions and generalized Jachymski’s results. Finally, Nicolae et al. [4] presented some fixed point results for a new type of contractions using orbits and also for Gasymptotic contractions in metric spaces endowed with a graph.
The aim of this paper is to generalize Theorems 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4 and Proposition 3.1 of Jachymski [2] from metric to uniform spaces endowed with a graph and to present a new type of contractive mappings. The reader interested in (ordered) uniform fixed point theorems may consult the references [5–7].
Following Willard [8], a uniformity on a nonempty set X is a nonempty family \mathcal{U} of subsets of X\times X satisfying the following conditions:
(U1) Each U\in \mathcal{U} contains the diagonal \mathrm{\Delta}(X)=\{(x,x):x\in X\};
(U2) \mathcal{U} is closed under finite intersections;
(U3) For each U\in \mathcal{U}, the set \{(x,y):(y,x)\in U\} is a member of \mathcal{U};
(U4) For each U\in \mathcal{U}, there exists a member V of \mathcal{U} such that (x,z)\in U whenever (x,y),(y,z)\in V for all x,y,z\in X;
(U5) \mathcal{U} contains the supersets of its elements.
Given a uniformity \mathcal{U} on a nonempty set X, the pair (X,\mathcal{U}), simply denoted by X, is called a uniform space.
A uniformity \mathcal{U} on a nonempty set X is separating if the intersection of all members of \mathcal{U} is equal to \mathrm{\Delta}(X). In this case, X is called a separated uniform space.
We are now ready to recall the concepts of ℰdistance and pcompleteness introduced by Aamri and El Moutawakil [1].
Definition 1 ([1])
Let X be a uniform space. A function p:X\times X\to [0,+\mathrm{\infty}) is said to be an ℰdistance on X if

(i)
for each U\in \mathcal{U}, there exists a positive number δ such that (x,y)\in U whenever p(z,x)\le \delta and p(z,y)\le \delta for all x,y,z\in X;

(ii)
p satisfies the triangular inequality, i.e.,
p(x,y)\le p(x,z)+p(z,y)\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}(x,y,z\in X).
A sequence \{{x}_{n}\} in a uniform space X equipped with an ℰdistance p is said to be pconvergent to a point x\in X, denoted by {x}_{n}\stackrel{p}{\to}x, if p({x}_{n},x)\to 0 as n\to \mathrm{\infty}, and pCauchy if p({x}_{m},{x}_{n})\to 0 as m,n\to \mathrm{\infty}. The uniform space X is said to be pcomplete if each pCauchy sequence in X is pconvergent to some point of X.
The next lemma shows that in a separated uniform space every sequence is pconvergent to at most one point. The proof is straightforward, and hence it is omitted here.
Lemma 1 ([1])
Let \{{x}_{n}\} be a sequence in a separated uniform space X equipped with an ℰdistance p, and x,y\in X. If {x}_{n}\stackrel{p}{\to}x and {x}_{n}\stackrel{p}{\to}y, then x=y. In particular, if p(z,x)=p(z,y)=0 for some z\in X, then x=y.
Example 1 Suppose that the set X=[0,+\mathrm{\infty}) is endowed with the trivial uniformity, that is, \mathcal{U}=\{X\times X\}. Putting p(x,y)=y for all x,y\in X, it is seen that p is an ℰdistance on X and each sequence (and even each net) in X is pconvergent only to zero, but clearly, this space is not separated. Therefore, the converse of Lemma 1 is not true in general.
We next review some basic notions of graph theory in relation to uniform spaces that we need in the sequel. For more details on the theory of graphs, see, e.g., [9].
Let X be a uniform space equipped with an ℰdistance p and consider a directed graph G with V(G)=X and \mathrm{\Delta}(X)\subseteq E(G), that is, E(G) contains all loops. Suppose further that G has no parallel edges. The graph G may be considered a weighted graph by assigning the nonnegative number p(x,y) to each edge (x,y) in E(G).
We denote by {G}^{1} the conversion of the graph G, that is, V({G}^{1})=V(G) and
The undirected graph obtained from G by ignoring the directions of the edges of G is denoted by \tilde{G}. Indeed, \tilde{G} can be treated as a directed graph for which the set E(\tilde{G}) is a symmetric subset of X\times X, namely E(\tilde{G})=E(G)\cup E({G}^{1}).
If x and y are two vertices in a graph G, then a path in G from x to y is a finite sequence {({x}_{i})}_{i=0}^{N} consisting of N+1 vertices of G such that {x}_{0}=x, {x}_{N}=y, and ({x}_{i1},{x}_{i})\in E(G) for i=1,\dots ,N, where . A graph G is said to be connected if there exists a path in G between each two vertices of G, and weakly connected if the graph \tilde{G} is connected.
By a subgraph of G, we mean a graph H satisfying V(H)\subseteq V(G) and E(H)\subseteq E(G) such that V(H) contains the vertices of all edges of E(H).
If x\in V(G) and E(G) is symmetric, then the subgraph {G}_{x} consisting of all edges and vertices that are contained in some path in G that starts at x is called the component of G containing x. Thus, V({G}_{x})={[x]}_{G}, where {[x]}_{G} is the equivalence class of x in the equivalence relation ∼ defined by
It is clear that the graph {G}_{x} is connected for all x\in X.
2 Main results
Throughout this section, we assume that X is a uniform space that is endowed with an ℰdistance p and a directed graph G with V(G)=X and \mathrm{\Delta}(X)\subseteq E(G) unless stated otherwise.
We denote by Fix(f) the set of all fixed points for a selfmap f on X, and further by Φ the class of all nondecreasing functions φ from [0,+\mathrm{\infty}) into [0,1).
Following Jachymski [2], we introduce (p,\phi )\text{}Gcontractions on a uniform space endowed with an ℰdistance and a graph.
Definition 2 Let f be a selfmap on X and φ be a function in Φ. Then f is called a (p,\phi )\text{}Gcontraction if
(C1) the edges of G are preserved by f, i.e., (x,y)\in E(G) implies (fx,fy)\in E(G) for all x,y\in X;
(C2) the pweights of the edges of G are φdecreased by f in the sense that
for all x,y\in X with (x,y)\in E(G).
If p is a metric on X, then we call f a \phi \text{}Gcontraction, and we call f a (p,\phi )contraction if (1) holds for all x,y\in X.
We now give some examples of (p,\phi )\text{}Gcontractions.
Example 2 If p({x}_{0},{x}_{0})=0 for some {x}_{0}\in X, since E(G) contains all loops, it follows that the constant mapping f={x}_{0} is a (p,\phi )\text{}Gcontraction for any \phi \in \mathrm{\Phi}. In particular, p(x,x)=0 for all x\in X if and only if each constant mapping on X is a (p,\phi )\text{}Gcontraction for some \phi \in \mathrm{\Phi}.
Example 3 Each (p,\phi )contraction is a (p,\phi )\text{}{G}_{0}contraction, where {G}_{0} is the complete graph with V({G}_{0})=X, that is, E({G}_{0})=X\times X.
Example 4 Suppose that ⪯ is a partial order on X and consider the poset graph {G}_{1}, that is, V({G}_{1})=X and
Then Condition (C1) means that f is nondecreasing with respect to ⪯, and Condition (C2) means that f is an order (p,\phi )contraction, i.e., (1) holds for all x,y\in X with x\u2aafy.
In the next example, we construct a selfmap f that fails to be a \phi \text{}Gcontraction for any \phi \in \mathrm{\Phi}, whereas f is a (p,\phi )\text{}Gcontraction for some ℰdistance p and some \phi \in \mathrm{\Phi}.
Example 5 Let X=[0,+\mathrm{\infty}) be endowed with the usual uniformity (see [[8], p.239]) and the graph {G}_{0}. Let n\ge 2 and consider a selfmap f on X defined by the rule
Then f is not a \phi \text{}{G}_{0}contraction for any \phi \in \mathrm{\Phi}. Because, setting x=1 and y=\frac{1}{2}, we have
Now, put p(x,y)=y for all x,y\in X and define \phi :[0,+\mathrm{\infty})\to [0,1) by
Clearly, \phi \in \mathrm{\Phi} and an easy argument shows that Conditions (C1) and (C2) are satisfied. Thus, f is a (p,\phi )\text{}{G}_{0}contraction.
Example 6 Consider the mapping f on defined by fx=x+1 for all . Let G be an arbitrary weakly connected graph with and and φ be any function in Φ. Since G is weakly connected, there exists two distinct points such that (x,y)\in E(G). Then
Therefore, f is not a \phi \text{}Gcontraction for any weakly connected graph G (with and ) and any function \phi \in \mathrm{\Phi}. Now let be equipped with the trivial uniformity \mathcal{U}=\{X\times X\}. Then defined by p(x,y)=0 for all is an Edistance on , and the mapping f is a (p,\phi )\text{}\tilde{{G}_{0}}contraction for any function \phi \in \mathrm{\Phi}.
Example 7 Let X=[0,1] be endowed with the usual uniformity and define f:X\to X by
Then f is not a \phi \text{}{G}_{0}contraction for any \phi \in \mathrm{\Phi} since
On the other hand, defining ‘⪯’ by
the same argument shows that f fails to be a \phi \text{}{G}_{1}contraction for any \phi \in \mathrm{\Phi}.
Now, set V({G}_{3})=X and
Then f is a \phi \text{}{G}_{3}contraction if we define \phi :[0,+\mathrm{\infty})\to [0,1) by the rule \phi (t)=\frac{4t}{7}.
Remark 1 It is worth mentioning that Conditions (C1) and (C2) are independent of each other. For instance, the identity mapping on preserves the edges of {G}_{0}, but there is no \phi \in \mathrm{\Phi} for which the contractive condition (1) holds. Conversely, setting fx=\frac{1}{2}x for all , it is seen that f is an order (p,\phi )contraction for the constant function \phi =\frac{1}{2} but f fails to be nondecreasing.
Remark 2 Putting φ the constant function \alpha \in [0,1) in Definition 2, we get the concept of Banach Gcontraction with p=d on a metric space (X,d), which was introduced by Jachymski [2].
Definition 3 We say that the sequences \{{x}_{n}\} and \{{y}_{n}\} are pCauchy equivalent in X if both of them are pCauchy and further, p({x}_{n},{y}_{n})\to 0 as n\to \mathrm{\infty}.
Hereafter we assume that φ is an arbitrary fixed function in Φ and f:X\to X is a (p,\phi )\text{}\tilde{G}contraction unless stated otherwise.
Theorem 1 Consider the following statements:

(A)
G is weakly connected.

(B)
If f is a (p,\phi )\text{}\tilde{G}contraction, then \{{f}^{n}x\} and \{{f}^{n}y\} are pCauchy equivalent for all x,y\in X.

(C)
Each (p,\phi )\text{}\tilde{G}contraction has at most one fixed point in X.
Then,

(i)
(A) implies (B).

(ii)
(B) implies (C) provided that X is separated.

(iii)
(C) implies (A) provided that p(x,x)=0 for all x\in X.
Proof (i) Let x,y\in X be given. Since G is weakly connected, there exists a path {({x}_{i})}_{i=0}^{N} in \tilde{G} from x to y, i.e., {x}_{0}=x, {x}_{N}=y, and ({x}_{i1},{x}_{i})\in E(\tilde{G}) for each i. Because f is a (p,\phi )\tilde{G}contraction, we get by induction that
and, furthermore, by the contractive condition (1) and the fact that φ is nondecreasing, we get
for all n\ge 1 and all i=1,\dots ,N. Hence, by the triangle inequality of p,
where k=max\{\phi (p({x}_{i1},{x}_{i})):i=1,\dots ,N\}<1 and r(x,y)={\sum}_{i=1}^{N}p({x}_{i1},{x}_{i}). Now, the weak connectivity of G gives fx\in X={[x]}_{\tilde{G}}, and so, setting y=fx in (2) yields
for all n\ge 1. Since k<1, it follows that {\sum}_{n=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}p({f}^{n}x,{f}^{n+1}x)<\mathrm{\infty} and a standard argument shows that \{{f}^{n}x\} is pCauchy. Similarly, \{{f}^{n}y\} is pCauchy and hence \{{f}^{n}x\} and \{{f}^{n}y\} are pCauchy equivalent.

(ii)
Let x and y be two fixed points for f. Since, by the hypothesis, \{{f}^{n}x\} and \{{f}^{n}y\} are pCauchy equivalent, it follows that
p(x,y)=p({f}^{n}x,{f}^{n}y)\to 0\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}\text{and}\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}p(x,x)=p({f}^{n}x,{f}^{n}x)\to 0.
Because X is separated, Lemma 1 ensures that x=y.

(iii)
Suppose on the contrary that G is not weakly connected. Then there exists an {x}_{0}\in X such that both sets {[{x}_{0}]}_{\tilde{G}} and X\setminus {[{x}_{0}]}_{\tilde{G}} are nonempty. Fix any {y}_{0}\in X\setminus {[{x}_{0}]}_{\tilde{G}} and define f:X\to X by
fx=\{\begin{array}{cc}{x}_{0},\hfill & x\in {[{x}_{0}]}_{\tilde{G}},\hfill \\ {y}_{0},\hfill & x\in X\setminus {[{x}_{0}]}_{\tilde{G}}.\hfill \end{array}
Clearly, Fix(f)=\{{x}_{0},{y}_{0}\}. To get a contradiction, we show that f is a (p,\phi )\text{}\tilde{G}contraction. If (x,y)\in E(\tilde{G}), then {[x]}_{\tilde{G}}={[y]}_{\tilde{G}}, and so either x,y\in {[{x}_{0}]}_{\tilde{G}} or x,y\in X\setminus {[{x}_{0}]}_{\tilde{G}}. Hence, in both cases, fx=fy, so (fx,fy)\in E(\tilde{G}) because \mathrm{\Delta}(X)\subseteq E(\tilde{G}). Moreover,
where φ is any arbitrary function in Φ. Thus, f is a (p,\phi )\text{}\tilde{G}contraction. □
Corollary 1 If X is pcomplete and G is weakly connected, then there exists an {x}^{\ast}\in X such that {f}^{n}x\stackrel{p}{\to}{x}^{\ast} for all x\in X.
Proof Fix any point x\in X. By Theorem 1, \{{f}^{n}x\} is a pCauchy sequence in X. Since X is pcomplete, there exists an {x}^{\ast}\in X such that {f}^{n}x\stackrel{p}{\to}{x}^{\ast}. Now, if y\in X, then by the pCauchy equivalence of \{{f}^{n}y\} and \{{f}^{n}x\}, we have
Therefore, {f}^{n}y\stackrel{p}{\to}{x}^{\ast}. □
Proposition 1 If for some {x}_{0}\in X we have f{x}_{0}\in {[{x}_{0}]}_{\tilde{G}}, then {[{x}_{0}]}_{\tilde{G}} is finvariant and f{}_{{[{x}_{0}]}_{\tilde{G}}} is a (p,\phi )\text{}{\tilde{G}}_{{x}_{0}}contraction. Moreover, if x,y\in {[{x}_{0}]}_{\tilde{G}}, then \{{f}^{n}x\} and \{{f}^{n}y\} are pCauchy equivalent.
Proof Let x\in {[{x}_{0}]}_{\tilde{G}}. Then there exists a path {({x}_{i})}_{i=0}^{N} in \tilde{G} from {x}_{0} to x, i.e., {x}_{N}=x and ({x}_{i1},{x}_{i})\in E(\tilde{G}) for each i. So, (f{x}_{i1},f{x}_{i})\in E(\tilde{G}) for each i, that is, {(f{x}_{i})}_{i=0}^{N} is a path in \tilde{G} from f{x}_{0} to fx, and since f{x}_{0}\in {[{x}_{0}]}_{\tilde{G}}, there is another path {({y}_{j})}_{j=0}^{M} in \tilde{G} from {x}_{0} to f{x}_{0}, i.e., {y}_{0}={x}_{0}, {y}_{M}=f{x}_{0}, and ({y}_{j1},{y}_{j})\in E(\tilde{G}) for each j. Thus, fx\in {[{x}_{0}]}_{\tilde{G}}. Therefore, {[{x}_{0}]}_{\tilde{G}} is finvariant.
Next, let (x,y)\in E({\tilde{G}}_{{x}_{0}}). This means that there exists a path {({x}_{i})}_{i=0}^{N} in \tilde{G} from {x}_{0} to y such that {x}_{N1}=x. Repeating the argument above, we infer that
is a path in \tilde{G} from {x}_{0} to fy. In particular,
Since E({\tilde{G}}_{{x}_{0}})\subseteq E(\tilde{G}), it follows that f is a (p,\phi )\text{}{\tilde{G}}_{{x}_{0}}contraction.
Moreover, because {\tilde{G}}_{{x}_{0}} is weakly connected, Theorem 1 implies that the sequences \{{f}^{n}x\} and \{{f}^{n}y\} are pCauchy equivalent for all x,y\in {[{x}_{0}]}_{\tilde{G}}. □
Following Petruşel and Rus [10], we introduce the concept of a pPicard operator.
Definition 4 A selfmap f on X is called a pPicard operator if f has a unique fixed point {x}^{\ast} in X and {f}^{n}x\stackrel{p}{\to}{x}^{\ast} for all x\in X.
Given a selfmap f on X, we denote the set \{x\in X:(x,fx)\in E(\tilde{G})\} by {X}_{f}.
Theorem 2 Let X be pcomplete, separated and satisfy the following property:
(∗) For each sequence \{{x}_{n}\} in X, pconvergent to some x\in X, if ({x}_{n},{x}_{n+1})\in E(\tilde{G}) for all n\ge 1, then there exists a subsequence \{{x}_{{n}_{k}}\} of \{{x}_{n}\} such that ({x}_{{n}_{k}},x)\in E(\tilde{G}) for all k\ge 1.
Then

(i)
f{}_{{[x]}_{\tilde{G}}} is a pPicard operator for each x\in {X}_{f}.

(ii)
If {X}_{f}\ne \mathrm{\varnothing} and G is weakly connected, f is a pPicard operator.

(iii)
card(Fix(f))=card\{{[x]}_{\tilde{G}}:x\in {X}_{f}\}.

(iv)
Fix(f)\ne \mathrm{\varnothing} if and only if {X}_{f}\ne \mathrm{\varnothing}.

(v)
f has a unique fixed point if and only if there exists an {x}_{0}\in {X}_{f} such that {X}_{f}\subseteq {[{x}_{0}]}_{\tilde{G}}.
Proof (i) Let x\in {X}_{f}. Then fx\in {[x]}_{\tilde{G}}, and so by Proposition 1 and Corollary 1, there exists an {x}^{\ast}\in X such that {f}^{n}y\stackrel{p}{\to}{x}^{\ast} for all y\in {[x]}_{\tilde{G}}. Since (x,fx)\in E(\tilde{G}), it follows from Condition (C1) that
By the property (∗), there exists a subsequence \{{f}^{{n}_{k}}x\} of \{{f}^{n}x\} such that ({f}^{{n}_{k}}x,{x}^{\ast})\in E(\tilde{G}) for all k\ge 1.
Now, by (3), we see that (x,fx,\dots ,{f}^{{n}_{1}}x,{x}^{\ast}) is a path in \tilde{G} from x to {x}^{\ast}, that is, {x}^{\ast}\in {[x]}_{\tilde{G}}. Moreover, because f is a (p,\phi )\text{}\tilde{G}contraction, it follows that
Letting k\to \mathrm{\infty}, it is concluded that {f}^{{n}_{k}+1}x\stackrel{p}{\to}f{x}^{\ast}, and since {f}^{{n}_{k}+1}x\stackrel{p}{\to}{x}^{\ast}, Lemma 1 yields {x}^{\ast}=f{x}^{\ast}. If {y}^{\ast}\in {[x]}_{\tilde{G}} is a fixed point for f, since {f}^{n}{y}^{\ast}\stackrel{p}{\to}{x}^{\ast}, it follows that p({y}^{\ast},{x}^{\ast})=0. Furthermore, since, by Proposition 1, \{{f}^{n}{y}^{\ast}\} is pCauchy equivalent to itself, it follows that p({y}^{\ast},{y}^{\ast})=0. Now, again by Lemma 1, {x}^{\ast}={y}^{\ast}. Thus, f{}_{{[x]}_{\tilde{G}}} is a pPicard operator.

(ii)
If G is weakly connected, then {[x]}_{\tilde{G}}=X, where x\in {X}_{f}, and so, by (i), f is a pPicard operator.

(iii)
Set C=\{{[x]}_{\tilde{G}}:x\in {X}_{f}\} and define a mapping \theta :Fix(f)\to C by
\theta (x)={[x]}_{\tilde{G}}.
We are going to show that θ is a bijection. Since \mathrm{\Delta}(X)\subseteq E(\tilde{G}), it follows that Fix(f)\subseteq {X}_{f}, and hence θ is welldefined. On the other hand, if x\in {X}_{f}, then by Theorem 1, there exists an {x}^{\ast}\in X such that
which implies that
Thus, θ is surjective.
Now, if {x}_{1},{x}_{2}\in Fix(f) are such that \theta ({x}_{1})=\theta ({x}_{2}), then {x}_{2}\in {[{x}_{1}]}_{\tilde{G}}. So, by Proposition 1 and Theorem 1,
Therefore, {x}_{1}={x}^{\ast}={x}_{2}. Consequently, θ is injective.
(iv), (v) They are immediate consequences of (iii). □
Remark 3 In [11], GwóźdźŁukawska and Jachymski proved some fixed point results for iterated function systems of Gcontractions, and in [[11], Example 2], they explicitly claimed that none of [[11], Theorems 47] can be generalized to the family of all edgepreserving selfmaps satisfying the contractive condition
where is nondecreasing and satisfies {\phi}^{n}(t)\to 0 for all t>0. More precisely, their example contains a fixed point free (G,\phi )contraction (in the sense of [[3], Definition 2.1]) and hence it contradicts [[3], Theorem 2.3, (2)], which implies the existence of a fixed point for such a mapping. It might be interesting for the reader why the mapping f in this example does not satisfy (1), which is the main condition of Theorem 2 of this paper and so the example is not in contrary with that theorem. We give the following two reasons:

(1)
Let f and φ be as in [[11], Example 2]. Since for each n\ge 1, we have
f{s}_{n}f{s}_{n+1}=\phi ({s}_{n}{s}_{n+1})>\phi ({s}_{n}{s}_{n+1})\cdot \frac{1}{n+1}=\phi ({s}_{n}{s}_{n+1})\cdot {s}_{n}{s}_{n+1},
it shows that f is not a \phi \text{}Gcontraction, i.e., it does not satisfy
In particular, f is not a \phi \text{}\tilde{G}contraction;

(2)
In essence, the mapping f in [[11], Example 2] fails to be a \phi \text{}Gcontraction for any \phi \in \mathrm{\Phi}. Otherwise, if f is a \phi \text{}Gcontraction for some \phi \in \mathrm{\Phi}, then from
\frac{1}{n+2}=f{s}_{n}f{s}_{n+1}\le \phi ({s}_{n}{s}_{n+1})\cdot {s}_{n}{s}_{n+1}=\phi \left(\frac{1}{n+1}\right)\cdot \frac{1}{n+1},
we have
By the monotonicity of φ, it follows that the sequence \{\phi (\frac{1}{n+1})\} is nonincreasing and bounded from below. Therefore,
which is a contradiction.
Example 8 Let X=\{\frac{1}{n}:n\ge 1\}\cup \{0,\frac{2}{3}\} be endowed with the Euclidean metric and define a graph {G}_{4} by V({G}_{4})=X and
Clearly, X is complete and {G}_{4} is weakly connected. Consider f defined by fx=\frac{2}{3} if x=1, and fx=0 if x\ne 1. Then f is edgepreserving but given \alpha \in [0,1), it is seen that
So, f is not a Banach {G}_{4}contraction in the sense of [[2], Definition 2.1] and we cannot use [[2], Theorem 3.2].
Now, uniformize X with the usual uniformity and consider an ℰdistance p on X by p(x,y)=y. Then X is separated, pcomplete and satisfies the property (∗). Moreover, {X}_{f}=X. Therefore, considering φ as in Example 5, it is seen that f is a (p,\phi )\text{}{G}_{4}contraction, and so by Theorem 2, f is a pPicard operator with the unique fixed point zero.
Our next result is a generalization of [[2], Corollary 3.2].
Corollary 2 Let X be pcomplete, separated and satisfy the property (∗), and p(x,x)=0 for all x\in X. Then the following statements are equivalent:

(i)
G is weakly connected;

(ii)
If f is a (p,\phi )\text{}\tilde{G}contraction such that ({x}_{0},f{x}_{0})\in E(\tilde{G}) for some {x}_{0}\in X, then f is a pPicard operator;

(iii)
Each (p,\phi )\text{}\tilde{G}contraction has at most one fixed point in X.
Proof (i) ⇒ (ii): It follows immediately from Theorem 2.

(ii)
⇒ (iii): Let f be a (p,\phi )\text{}\tilde{G}contraction. If Fix(f)=\mathrm{\varnothing}, then there is nothing to prove. Otherwise, by Theorem 2, {X}_{f}\ne \mathrm{\varnothing}. Thus, by the hypothesis, f is a pPicard operator and so it has a unique fixed point.

(iii)
⇒ (i): It follows from Theorem 1. □
Following the idea of Jachymski [2], we define two different types of pcontinuity of selfmaps on X and then we discuss them.
Definition 5 Let f be a selfmap on X. We say that

(i)
f is orbitally pcontinuous if for each x,y\in X and each sequence \{{a}_{n}\} of positive integers, {f}^{{a}_{n}}x\stackrel{p}{\to}y implies f({f}^{{a}_{n}}x)\stackrel{p}{\to}fy.

(ii)
f is graph orbitally pcontinuous if for each x,y\in X and each sequence \{{a}_{n}\} of positive integers with ({f}^{{a}_{n}}x,{f}^{{a}_{n+1}}x)\in E(\tilde{G}) for n=1,2,\dots such that {f}^{{a}_{n}}x\stackrel{p}{\to}y, one has f({f}^{{a}_{n}}x)\stackrel{p}{\to}fy.
It is clear that pcontinuity (see [[1], Definition 2.3]) implies orbital pcontinuity, and orbital pcontinuity implies graph orbital pcontinuity. But the converse of these relations is not true in general as the next example shows.
Example 9 Let X=[0,1] be endowed with the uniformity induced by the usual metric.

(i)
Consider an ℰdistance p on X defined by p(x,y)=max\{x,y\} and a selfmap f defined by the rule fx=1 if x\ne 0 and f0=0. Then f is orbitally pcontinuous since max\{{f}^{{a}_{n}}x,y\}\to 0 implies that x=y=0. But f fails to be pcontinuous because \frac{1}{n}\stackrel{p}{\to}0, whereas .

(ii)
Next, consider the ℰdistance p(x,y)=xy on X and the graph G with E(G)=\mathrm{\Delta}(X). Then the selfmap f on X defined by the rule fx=\frac{{x}^{2}}{2} if x\ne 0 and f0=1 is graph orbitally pcontinuous since ({f}^{{a}_{n}}x,{f}^{{a}_{n+1}}x)\in E(G) for all n implies that \{{f}^{{a}_{n}}x\} is a constant sequence. But setting x=y=0 and {a}_{n}=n, it is seen that {f}^{{a}_{n}}x\stackrel{p}{\to}y, whereas .
Theorem 3 Let X be pcomplete and separated, and f:X\to X be an orbitally pcontinuous (p,\phi )\text{}\tilde{G}contraction. Then

(i)
for each x\in X with fx\in {[x]}_{\tilde{G}}, there exists an {x}^{\ast}\in Fix(f) such that {f}^{n}y\stackrel{p}{\to}{x}^{\ast} for all y\in {[x]}_{\tilde{G}}.

(ii)
Fix(f)\ne \mathrm{\varnothing} if and only if there exists an {x}_{0}\in X such that f{x}_{0}\in {[{x}_{0}]}_{\tilde{G}}.

(iii)
If G is weakly connected, f is a pPicard operator.
Proof (i) Let x\in X be such that fx\in {[x]}_{\tilde{G}}, and let y\in {[x]}_{\tilde{G}}. Since X is pcomplete, by Proposition 1, \{{f}^{n}x\} and \{{f}^{n}y\} are pconvergent to a same point {x}^{\ast}\in X. Since f is orbitally pcontinuous, it follows that
On the other hand, f({f}^{n}x)={f}^{n+1}x\stackrel{p}{\to}{x}^{\ast}, and so by Lemma 1, we have {x}^{\ast}=f{x}^{\ast}, that is, {x}^{\ast}\in Fix(f). Moreover, if z is any other point in {[x]}_{\tilde{G}}, then it is clear that {f}^{n}z\stackrel{p}{\to}{x}^{\ast}.

(ii)
If there exists an {x}_{0}\in X such that f{x}_{0}\in {[{x}_{0}]}_{\tilde{G}}, then, by (i), we have Fix(f)\ne \mathrm{\varnothing}. The converse is trivial.

(iii)
Since G is weakly connected, it follows that {[x]}_{\tilde{G}}=X for all x\in X. So, by (i), there exists an {x}^{\ast}\in Fix(f) such that {f}^{n}y\stackrel{p}{\to}{x}^{\ast} for all y\in X. Now, similar to the proof of Theorem 2, one can show that {x}^{\ast} is the only fixed point for f, and hence f is a pPicard operator. □
A generalization of [[2], Corollary 3.3] is given in the next result.
Corollary 3 Let X be pcomplete and separated, and p(x,x)=0 for all x\in X. Then the following statements are equivalent:

(i)
G is weakly connected;

(ii)
Each orbitally pcontinuous (p,\phi )\text{}\tilde{G}contraction is a pPicard operator;

(iii)
Each orbitally pcontinuous (p,\phi )\text{}\tilde{G}contraction has at most one fixed point in X.
In particular, if \tilde{G} is disconnected, then there exists an orbitally pcontinuous (p,\phi )\tilde{G}contraction that has at least two fixed points in X.
Proof (i) ⇒ (ii): It follows from Theorem 3.

(ii)
⇒ (iii): It is trivial.

(iii)
⇒ (i): According to the proof of Theorem 1, it suffices to show that the selfmap f is orbitally pcontinuous. To this end, let x,y\in X and \{{a}_{n}\} be a sequence of positive integers such that {f}^{{a}_{n}}x\stackrel{p}{\to}y. Then \{{f}^{{a}_{n}}x\} is either the constant sequence {x}_{0} or the constant sequence {y}_{0}. If the former holds, then p({x}_{0},y)=0. Since p({x}_{0},{x}_{0})=0, it follows by Lemma 1 that y={x}_{0}. Therefore,
f\left({f}^{{a}_{n}}x\right)={x}_{0}\stackrel{p}{\to}{x}_{0}=fy.
Otherwise, if the latter holds, a similar argument shows that f is orbitally pcontinuous. □
Theorem 4 Let X be pcomplete and separated, and f:X\to X be a graph orbitally pcontinuous (p,\phi )\text{}\tilde{G}contraction. Then

(i)
for each x\in {X}_{f}, there exists an {x}^{\ast}\in Fix(f) such that {f}^{n}y\stackrel{p}{\to}{x}^{\ast} for all y\in {[x]}_{\tilde{G}}.

(ii)
Fix(f)\ne \mathrm{\varnothing} if and only if {X}_{f}\ne \mathrm{\varnothing}.

(iii)
If {X}_{f}\ne \mathrm{\varnothing} and G is weakly connected, f is a pPicard operator.
Proof (i) Let x\in X be such that (x,fx)\in E(\tilde{G}), and let y\in {[x]}_{\tilde{G}}. Since X is pcomplete, by Proposition 1, \{{f}^{n}x\} and \{{f}^{n}y\} are pconvergent to a same point {x}^{\ast}\in X. Moreover, ({f}^{n}x,{f}^{n+1}x)\in E(\tilde{G}) for all n\ge 1. Since f is graph orbitally pcontinuous, it follows that f({f}^{n}x)\stackrel{p}{\to}f{x}^{\ast}. On the other hand, because
Lemma 1 ensures that {x}^{\ast}=f{x}^{\ast}, that is, {x}^{\ast}\in Fix(f).

(ii)
If {X}_{f}\ne \mathrm{\varnothing}, then, by (i), Fix(f)\ne \mathrm{\varnothing}. Conversely, suppose that Fix(f)\ne \mathrm{\varnothing}. Since \mathrm{\Delta}(X)\subseteq E(\tilde{G}), it follows that {X}_{f}\ne \mathrm{\varnothing}.

(iii)
If x\in {X}_{f}, since G is weakly connected, we have {[x]}_{\tilde{G}}=X. Hence, by (i), there exists an {x}^{\ast}\in Fix(f) such that {f}^{n}y\stackrel{p}{\to}{x}^{\ast} for all y\in {[x]}_{\tilde{G}}=X. Now, similar to the proof of Theorem 2, it is seen that {x}^{\ast} is the only fixed point for f. □
Remark 4 In all theorems and corollaries above, setting G={G}_{0} (G={G}_{1}), we get the usual (ordered) version of fixed point theorems in (partially ordered) uniform spaces.
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Aghanians, A., Fallahi, K. & Nourouzi, K. Fixed points for Gcontractions on uniform spaces endowed with a graph. Fixed Point Theory Appl 2012, 182 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1186/168718122012182
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/168718122012182