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A remark on Jleli–Samet’s best proximity point theorems for αψcontraction mappings
Fixed Point Theory and Algorithms for Sciences and Engineering volume 2023, Article number: 6 (2023)
Abstract
Inspired by the work of Jachymski, we slightly extend some fixed point theorems with a graph and show that some best proximity point theorems for αψcontraction mappings of Jleli and Samet can be deduced by our results.
1 Introduction
Let f be a mapping on a nonempty set X. We say that \(z\in X\) is a fixed point of f if \(z=fz\). In 1922, Banach established one of the most famous fixed point theorems, namely the Banach contraction principle (see [2]), which has been generalized in many directions (for examples, see [1, 3, 6, 7]).
Let A, B be nonempty subsets of a metric space \((X,d)\) and \(T:A\to B\). We say that \(z\in A\) is a best proximity point of T if \(d(z,Tz)=d(A,B)\). Note that if \(A\cap B\neq \emptyset \), then a best proximity point becomes a fixed point.
In this paper, we slightly extend some fixed point theorems with a graph, which were introduced by Jachymski [4], and show that some best proximity point theorems for αψcontraction mappings of Jleli and Samet (see Theorems 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 in [5]) can be deduced by our results.
The following two theorems were proved by Jachymski in 2008.
Theorem J1
Let \((X,d)\) be a complete metric space, \(f:X\to X\) be a mapping and G be a directed graph. Suppose that
 (A1):

for any sequence \(\{x_{n}\}\) in X if \(\lim_{n} x_{n}=x\) for some \(x\in X\) and \((x_{n},x_{n+1})\in E(G)\) for all \(n\geq 1\), then there exists a subsequence \(\{x_{n_{k}}\}\) of \(\{x_{n}\}\) such that \((x_{n_{k}},x)\in E(G)\) for all \(k\geq 1\).
Assume that f satisfies the followings:

(1)
For all \(x,y\in X\) if \((x,y)\in E(G)\), then \((fx,fy)\in E(G)\);

(2)
There is \(\lambda \in (0,1)\) such that for all \(x,y\in X\) if \((x,y)\in E(G)\), then \(d(fx,fy)\leq \lambda d(x,y)\).
Then \(\operatorname{Fix}(f):=\{x:x=fx\}\neq \emptyset \) if and only if \(X_{f}:=\{x:(x,fx)\in E(G)\}\neq \emptyset \).
Theorem J2
Let \((X,d)\) be a complete metric space, \(f:X\to X\) be a mapping and G be a directed graph. Suppose that
 (A2):

f is orbitally Gcontinuous.
Assume that f satisfies the followings:

(1)
For all \(x,y\in X\) if \((x,y)\in E(G)\), then \((fx,fy)\in E(G)\);

(2)
There is \(\lambda \in (0,1)\) such that for all \(x,y\in X\) if \((x,y)\in E(G)\), then \(d(fx,fy)\leq \lambda d(x,y)\).
Then \(\operatorname{Fix}(f)\neq \emptyset \) if and only if \(X_{f}\neq \emptyset \).
2 Basics concepts and notations
Let X be a nonempty set and \(\Delta :=\{(x,x):x\in X\}\). In this paper, a directed graph G on X means the set of its vertices \(V(G)\) is X and the set of its edges \(E(G)\) is a subset of \(X\times X\) and we assume that \(\Delta \subset E(G)\) and G has no parallel edges.
Let G be a directed graph. The conversion of G, denoted by \(G^{1}\), is the graph such that \(V(G^{1})=V(G)\) and \(E(G^{1})=\{(x,y):(y,x)\in E(G)\}\). The undirected graph obtained from G, denoted by G̃, is the graph such that \(V(\widetilde{G})=V(G)\) and \(E(\widetilde{G})=E(G)\cup E(G^{1})\).
For \(x,y\in V(G)\), a path in a directed graph G from x to y of length N is a sequence \(\{x_{i}\}_{i=0}^{N}\) such that \(x_{0}=x\), \(x_{N}=y\) and \((x_{i1},x_{i})\in E(G)\) for \(i=1,2,\ldots ,N\).
A directed graph G is connected if every pair of vertices has a path. A directed graph G is weakly connected if G̃ is connected.
The following definition was introduced by Jachymski.
Definition 2.1
([4])
Let \((X,d)\) be a metric space and G be a directed graph. A mapping \(f:X\to X\) is called orbitally Gcontinuous if for all \(x,y\in X\) and any sequence \(\{k_{n}\}\) of positive integers
By using the concept of orbitally Gcontinuity of f, we slightly extend Theorems J1 and J2 by weakening the continuity of f and the completeness of \((X,d)\).
Definition 2.2
Let \((X,d)\) be a metric space and G be a directed graph. A mapping \(f:X\to X\) is called weakly orbitally Gcontinuous if for all \(x,y\in X\),
The following example shows that there is a weakly orbitally Gcontinuous mapping which is not orbitally Gcontinuous.
Example 2.1
Let \(X=[0,\infty )\) with the usual metric \(\cdot \). Let G be a directed graph on X with \(E(G)=\Delta \cup \{(x,y): x,y\in (0,1)\}\). Suppose \(f:X\to X\) is a mapping defined by
Since there is no \(x\in X\) such that \((f^{n}x,f^{n+1}x)\in E(G)\) for all \(n>0\), we have that f is weakly orbitally Gcontinuous.
Note that \(\lim_{n}f^{2n+1}(1)=0\) and \((f^{2n+1}(1),f^{2n+3}(1))\in E(G)\) for all \(n>0\) but \(\lim_{n}f(f^{2n+1}(1))\) does not exist. That is, f is not orbitally Gcontinuous.
Definition 2.3
Let \((X,d)\) be a metric space and \(f:X\to X\) be a mapping. Let G be a directed graph. We say that \((X,d)\) is weakly \((f,G)\)orbitally complete if for all \(x\in X\),
3 Main results
We denote by Ψ the set of nondecreasing functions \(\psi :[0,\infty )\to [0,\infty )\) such that \(\sum_{n=1}^{\infty }\psi ^{n}(t)<\infty \) for all \(t>0\).
Lemma 3.1
Let \(\psi \in \Psi \). Then the followings hold:

(1)
\(\psi (t)< t\) for all \(t>0\);

(2)
\(\psi (0)=0\).
Proof
(2) follows immediately from (1) and a proof of (1) can be found in [8]. □
Lemma 3.2
Let \((X,d)\) be a metric space with a directed graph G and f be a selfmapping on X. If \(\operatorname{Fix}(f)\neq \emptyset \), then \(X_{f}\neq \emptyset \).
Proof
Assume \(\operatorname{Fix}(f)\neq \emptyset \). Let \(z\in X\) such that \(z=fz\). Since \(E(G)\) contains all loops, we get \((z,fz)\in E(G)\), that is, \(z\in X_{f}\). □
Theorem 3.1
Let \((X,d)\) be a metric space and G be a directed graph. Suppose that
 (A1):

for any sequence \(\{x_{n}\}\) in X if \(\lim_{n} x_{n}=x\) for some \(x\in X\) and \((x_{n},x_{n+1})\in E(G)\) for all \(n\geq 1\), then there exists a subsequence \(\{x_{n_{k}}\}\) of \(\{x_{n}\}\) such that \((x_{n_{k}},x)\in E(G)\) for all \(k\geq 1\).
Suppose that \(f:X\to X\) and \(\psi \in \Psi \) satisfy the followings:

(1)
For all \(x,y\in X\) if \((x,y)\in E(G)\), then \((fx,fy)\in E(G)\);

(2)
For all \(x,y\in X\) if \((x,y)\in E(G)\), then \(d(fx,fy)\leq \psi (d(x,y))\).
Suppose that X is weakly \((f,G)\)orbitally complete. Then \(\operatorname{Fix}(f)\neq \emptyset \) if and only if \(X_{f}\neq \emptyset \).
Proof
It follows immediately from Lemma 3.2 that \(\operatorname{Fix}(f)\neq \emptyset \) implies \(X_{f}\neq \emptyset \). On the other hand, we assume that there is \(x_{0}\in X\) such that \((x_{0},fx_{0})\in E(G)\). For each \(n\geq 1\), we have \((f^{n}x_{0},f^{n+1}x_{0})\in E(G)\) which implies that \(d(f^{n+1}x_{0},f^{n+2}x_{0})\leq \psi (d(f^{n}x_{0},f^{n+1}x_{0}))\). Since ψ is nondecreasing, \(d(f^{n}x_{0},f^{n+1}x_{0})\leq \psi ^{n}(d(x_{0},fx_{0}))\). Then
which implies that \(\{f^{n}x_{0}\}\) is a Cauchy sequence. Note that X is weakly \((f,G)\)orbitally complete. Therefore, there is \(z\in X\) such that \(\lim_{n} f^{n}x_{0}=z\). By Condition (A1), there exists a subsequence \(\{f^{n_{k}}x_{0}\}\) of \(\{f^{n}x_{0}\}\) such that \((f^{n_{k}}x_{0},z)\in E(G)\) for all \(k\geq 1\). By Condition (2) and Lemma 3.1, it follows that
Therefore, \(d(z,fz)=\lim_{k}d(f^{n_{k}+1}x_{0},fz)\leq \lim_{k}d(f^{n_{k}}x_{0},z)=0\), that is, \(z\in \operatorname{Fix}(f)\). □
Theorem 3.2
Let \((X,d)\) be a metric space and G be a directed graph. Let \(f:X\to X\) be a mapping such that
 (A2^{∗}):

f is weakly orbitally Gcontinuous.
Let \(\psi \in \Psi \). Suppose that f and ψ satisfy the followings:

(1)
For all \(x,y\in X\) if \((x,y)\in E(G)\), then \((fx,fy)\in E(G)\);

(2)
For all \(x,y\in X\) if \((x,y)\in E(G)\), then \(d(fx,fy)\leq \psi (d(x,y))\).
Suppose that X is weakly \((f,G)\)orbitally complete. Then \(\operatorname{Fix}(f)\neq \emptyset \) if and only if \(X_{f}\neq \emptyset \).
Proof
Let \(x_{0}\in X\) such that \((x_{0},fx_{0})\in E(G)\). By following the proof of Theorem 3.1, we have that \(\lim_{n}f^{n}x_{0}=z\) for some \(z\in X\). Since the condition (A2^{∗}) holds, we get \(z=\lim_{n}f^{n+1}x_{0}=fz\) and this completes the proof. □
Remark 3.1
Theorems 3.1 and 3.2 extend Theorems J1 and J2 as follows:

1.
The orbitally Gcontinuity of f in Theorem J2 implies that f is weakly orbitally Gcontinuous in Theorem 3.2;

2.
The completeness of \((X,d)\) implies that X is weakly \((f,G)\)orbitally complete;

3.
In Theorems J1 and J2, if we put \(\psi (t)=\lambda t\) for all \(t\in [0,\infty )\), then \(\psi \in \Psi \).
Inspired by the work of Jachymski (see [4, Theorem 3.1]), the following theorem characterizes the uniqueness of a fixed point (if it exists) of a mapping in a metric space with a directed graph.
Theorem 3.3
Let \((X,d)\) be a metric space and G be a directed graph. The followings are equivalent:

(1)
G is weakly connected;

(2)
For any \(f:X\to X\) with \(\lim_{n} d(f^{n}x,f^{n}y)=0\) whenever \((x,y)\in E(G)\), \(\operatorname{card}(\operatorname{Fix}(f))\leq 1\).
Proof
(1)⇒(2): We assume that G is weakly connected. Let \(f:X\to X\) be a mapping such that \(\lim_{n} d(f^{n}x,f^{n}y)=0\) whenever \((x,y)\in E(G)\). Let u and v be two fixed points of f, that is, \(u=fu\) and \(v=fv\). Since G is weakly connected, there is a path \(\{x_{i}\}_{i=0} ^{N}\) of length N such that
Therefore,
That is, \(\operatorname{card}(\operatorname{Fix}(f))\leq 1\).
(2)⇒(1): Suppose that G is not weakly connected. Then there are \(x,y\in X\) such that there is no path from x to y in G̃. Note that \(x\neq y\). We define \(f:X\to X\) by for all \(w\in X\)
Note that x and y are two different fixed points of f. Let \((u,v)\in E(G)\). Then \(fu=fv=x\) or \(fu=fv=y\) which implies that \(\lim_{n} d(f^{n}u,f^{n}v)=0\). This completes the proof. □
4 Discussion on best proximity fixed point results for αψproximal contrative type mappings
In this section, we discuss some best proximity fixed point results for αψproximal contrative type mappings of of Jleli and Samet in [5] that can be deduced by our results.
Let A and B be two nonempty subsets of a metric space \((X,d)\). We recall the following notations:
Definition 4.1
([5])
Let A and B be two nonempty subsets of a metric space \((X,d)\). Then the pair \((A,B)\) is said to have the Pproperty if
where \(x_{1},x_{2}\in A\) and \(y_{1},y_{2}\in B\).
Definition 4.2
([5])
Let A and B be two nonempty subsets of a metric space \((X,d)\). Let \(T:A\to B\) and \(\alpha :A\times A\to [0,\infty )\). We say that T is αproximal admissible if
for all \(x_{1},x_{2},u_{1},u_{2}\in A\).
Definition 4.3
([5])
Let A and B be two nonempty subsets of a metric space \((X,d)\). Let \(T:A\to B\) and \(\alpha :A\times A\to [0,\infty )\) and \(\psi \in \Psi \). We say that T is an αψproximal contraction if
Definition 4.4
([5])
Let A and B be two nonempty subsets of a metric space \((X,d)\). Let \(T:A\to B\) and \(\alpha :A\times A\to [0,\infty )\). We say that T is \((\alpha ,d)\)regular if for all \((x,y)\in \alpha ^{1}([0,1))\), there exists \(z\in A_{0}\) such that
The following three theorems were proved by Jleli and Samet in 2013.
Theorem JS1
Let A, B be nonempty closed subsets of a complete metric space \((X,d)\) such that \(A_{0}\) is nonempty. Let \(\alpha :A\times A\to [0,\infty )\) and \(\psi \in \Psi \). Suppose that \(T:A\to B\) satisfies the followings:
 (B1):

\(T(A_{0})\subset B_{0}\) and \((A,B)\) satisfies the Pproperty;
 (B2):

T is αproximal admissible;
 (B3):

T is an αψproximal contraction;
 (B4):

There are \(u,v\in A_{0}\) such that \(d(v,Tu)=d(A,B)\) and \(\alpha (u,v)\geq 1\);
 (B5):

If \(\{x_{n}\}\) is a sequence in A such that \(\alpha (x_{n},x_{n+1})\geq 1\) for all \(n>0\) and \(\lim_{n}x_{n}\to x\in A\), then there is a subsequence \(\{x_{n_{k}}\}\) of \(\{x_{n}\}\) such that \(\alpha (x_{n_{k}},x)\geq 1\) for all \(k>0\).
Then there is \(z\in A_{0}\) such that \(d(z,Tz)=d(A,B)\).
Theorem JS2
Let A, B be nonempty closed subsets of a complete metric space \((X,d)\) such that \(A_{0}\) is nonempty. Let \(\alpha :A\times A\to [0,\infty )\) and \(\psi \in \Psi \). Suppose that \(T:A\to B\) satisfies the followings:
 (B1):

\(T(A_{0})\subset B_{0}\) and \((A,B)\) satisfies the Pproperty;
 (B2):

T is αproximal admissible;
 (B3):

T is an αψproximal contraction;
 (B4):

There are \(u,v\in A_{0}\) such that \(d(v,Tu)=d(A,B)\) and \(\alpha (u,v)\geq 1\);
 (B5′):

T is continuous.
Then there is \(z\in A_{0}\) such that \(d(z,Tz)=d(A,B)\).
Theorem JS3
Let A, B be nonempty subsets of a metric space \((X,d)\) such that \(A_{0}\) is nonempty. Let \(\alpha :A\times A\to [0,\infty )\) and \(\psi \in \Psi \). Suppose that \(T:A\to B\) satisfies the followings:
 (B1):

\(T(A_{0})\subset B_{0}\) and \((A,B)\) satisfies the Pproperty;
 (B2):

T is αproximal admissible;
 (B3):

T is an αψproximal contraction.
If T is \((\alpha ,d)\)regular, then T has at most one best proximity point.
To show that Theorems JS1, JS2 and JS3 are the consequences of our Theorems 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3, respectively, we need the following lemmas.
Lemma 4.1
Let \((X,d)\) be a metric space. Let \(A,B\subset X\) such that \(A_{0}\) is nonempty and \((A,B)\) has the Pproperty. Suppose that \(T:A\to B\) is a mapping such that \(T(A_{0})\subset B_{0}\). Then, for each \(x\in A_{0}\), the set \(\{u\in A_{0}:d(u,Tx)=d(A,B)\}\) is a singleton set.
Proof
Let \(x\in A_{0}\). Put \(P:=\{u\in A_{0}:d(u,Tx)=d(A,B)\}\). Since \(T(A_{0})\subset B_{0}\), P is nonempty. Let \(u_{1},u_{2}\in P\). Then \(d(u_{1},Tx)=d(u_{2},Tx)=d(A,B) \). Since \((A,B)\) satisfy the Pproperty, we get \(d(u_{1},u_{2})=d(Tx,Tx)=0\), that is, \(u_{1}=u_{2}\). □
Lemma 4.2
Let A, B be nonempty subsets of a metric space \((X,d)\) such that \(A_{0}\) is nonempty. Let \(\alpha :A\times A\to [0,\infty )\) and \(\psi \in \Psi \). Suppose that \(T:A\to B\) satisfies the followings:
 (B1):

\(T(A_{0})\subset B_{0}\) and \((A,B)\) satisfies the Pproperty;
 (B2):

T is αproximal admissible;
 (B3):

T is an αψproximal contraction.
Let \(f:A_{0}\to A_{0}\) be defined by for each \(x\in A_{0}\)
and \(G_{0}\) a directed graph defined by \(V(G_{0})=A_{0}\) and
Then f and \(G_{0}\) satisfy the followings:

(1)
f is welldefined;

(2)
For all \(x,y\in X\) if \((x,y)\in E(G_{0})\), then \((fx,fy)\in E(G_{0})\);

(3)
For all \(x,y\in X\) if \((x,y)\in E(G_{0})\), then \(d(fx,fy)\leq \psi (d(x,y))\).
Proof
It follows from Lemma 4.1 that f is welldefined.
To see (2), let \((x,y)\in E(G_{0})\). If \(x=y\), then \(fx=fy\) which implies that \((fx,fy)\in E(G_{0})\). Otherwise, we assume that \(\alpha (x,y)\geq 1\). Note that \(d(fx,Tx)=d(fy,Ty)=d(A,B)\) and T is αproximal admissible. We have \(\alpha (fx,fy)\geq 1\), which implies that \((fx,fy)\in E(G_{0})\).
To see (3), let \((x,y)\in E(G_{0})\). If \(x=y\), then \(d(fx,fy)=0=\psi (d(x,y))\). Otherwise, we assume that \(\alpha (x,y)\geq 1\). Note that \(d(fx,Tx)=d(fy,Ty)=d(A,B)\). Since T is an αψproximal contraction and \((A,B)\) satisfies the Pproperty, we get \(d(fx,fy)=d(Tx,Ty)\leq \alpha (x,y)d(Tx,Ty)\leq \psi (d(x,y)) \), as desired. □
Lemma 4.3
Let A, B be nonempty closed subsets of a metric space \((X,d)\) such that \(A_{0}\) is nonempty. Suppose that \(T:A\to B\) satisfies \(T(A_{0})\subset B_{0}\) and \((A,B)\) satisfies the Pproperty. Let \(f:A_{0}\to A_{0}\) be defined by for each \(x\in A_{0}\)
Then for each \(z\in A_{0}\), \(z=fz\) if and only if \(d(z,Tz)=d(A,B)\).
Proof
It obtains immediately by the definition of f. □
The following is a proof of Theorem JS1 using our Theorem 3.1.
Proof of Theorem JS1
Let all assumptions in Theorem JS1 be satisfied. We define a mapping \(f:A_{0}\to A_{0}\) and a graph \(G_{0}\) as in Lemma 4.2. Then f and \(G_{0}\) satisfy the conditions (1) and (2) in Theorem 3.1.
To see that the metric space \((A_{0},d)\) with the directed graph \(G_{0}\) satisfies Condition (A1) in Theorem 3.1, let \(\{x_{n}\}\) be a sequence in \(A_{0}\) with \(\lim_{n} x_{n}=x\) for some \(x\in A_{0}\) and \((x_{n},x_{n+1})\in E(G_{0})\) for all \(n\geq 1\). If \(\{n:\alpha (x_{n},x_{n+1})\geq 1\}\) is finite, then there is \(N\geq 1\) such that, for each \(n\geq N\), \(x_{n}=x\), that is, \((x_{n},x)\in E(G_{0})\). Otherwise, we assume that \(\{n:\alpha (x_{n},x_{n+1})\geq 1\}\) is infinite. Note that \(\alpha (x_{n},x_{n+1})\geq 1\) whenever \(x_{n}\neq x_{n+1}\). Then there is a subsequence \(\{\widetilde{x}_{n}\}\) of \(\{x_{n}\}\) such that \(\alpha (\widetilde{x}_{n},\widetilde{x}_{n+1})\geq 1\) for all \(n\geq 1\). By the condition (B5), there is a subsequence \(\{\widetilde{x}_{n_{k}}\}\) of \(\{\widetilde{x}_{n}\}\) such that, for each \(k\geq 1\), \(\alpha (\widetilde{x}_{n_{k}},x)\geq 1\), that is, \((\widetilde{x}_{n_{k}},x)\in E(G_{0})\).
We now show that \((A_{0},d)\) is weakly \((f,G_{0})\)orbitally complete. Let \(x\in A_{0}\). Assume that \(\{f^{n}x\}\) is Cauchy and \((f^{n}x,f^{n+1}x)\in E(G_{0})\) for all \(n\geq 1\). Since X is complete and A is closed, there is \(z\in A\) such that \(\lim_{n} f^{n}x=z\). If \(\{n:\alpha (f^{n}x,f^{n+1}x)\geq 1\}\) is finite, then there is \(N\geq 1\) such that \(f^{n}x=z\) for all \(n\geq N\), that is, \(z\in A_{0}\). Otherwise,we assume that \(\{n:\alpha (f^{n}x,f^{n+1}x)\geq 1\}\) is infinite. Using Condition (B5), there is a subsequence \(\{f^{n_{k}}x\}\) of \(\{f^{n}x\}\) such that \(\alpha (f^{n_{k}}x,z)\geq 1\) for all \(k\geq 1\). Then we have
We get \(\lim_{k} Tf^{n_{k}}x=Tz\). By the definition of f, \(d(f^{n_{k}+1}x,Tf^{n_{k}}x)=d(A,B)\) for all \(k\geq 1\). Therefore,
That is \(z\in A_{0}\).
Finally, we show that \(\{x:(x,fx)\in E(G_{0})\}\neq \emptyset \). Since \(d(v,Tu)=d(A,B)\) and \(\alpha (u,v)\geq 1\), we have \(v=fu\) and hence \((u,fu)\in E(G_{0})\). By using our Theorem 3.1, there is \(p\in A_{0}\) such that \(p=fp\). By Lemma 4.3, we have \(d(p,Tp)=d(A,B)\), as desired. □
The following is a proof of Theorem JS2 via Theorem 3.2.
Proof of Theorem JS2
Let all assumptions in Theorem JS2 be satisfied. We define a mapping \(f:A_{0}\to A_{0}\) and a graph \(G_{0}\) as in Lemma 4.2. Then we have f and \(G_{0}\) satisfy (1) and (2) in Theorem 3.2.
To see that f satisfies Condition (A2^{∗}) in Theorem 3.2, let \(x,y\in A_{0}\) such that \(\lim_{n}f^{n}x=y\) and \((f^{n}x,f^{n+1}x)\in E(G_{0})\) for all \(n\geq 1\). Note that \(d(fw,Tw)=d(A,B)\) for all \(w\in A_{0}\). Since \((A,B)\) has the Pproperty and T is continuous,
Finally, we show that \((A_{0},d)\) is weakly \((f,G_{0})\)orbitally complete. Let \(x\in A_{0}\). Assume that \(\{f^{n}x\}\) is Cauchy and \((f^{n}x,f^{n+1}x)\in E(G_{0})\) for all \(n\geq 1\). Since X is complete and A is closed, there is \(z\in A\) such that \(\lim_{n} f^{n}x=z\). By the continuity of T, we have \(\lim_{n}T(f^{n}x)=Tz\). This implies that
That is \(z\in A_{0}\). Note that Condition (B4) implies \((u,fu)\in E(G_{0})\). By using Theorem 3.2, there is \(p\in A_{0}\) such that \(p=fp\) which implies that \(d(p,Tp)=d(A,B)\). □
Finally, we show a proof of Theorem JS3 by using our Theorem 3.3.
Proof of Theorem JS3
We assume that all the assumptions hold and suppose that T is \((\alpha ,d)\)regular. We define the mapping \(f:A_{0}\to A_{0}\) and the directed graph \(G_{0}\) as in Lemma 4.2. Since T is \((\alpha ,d)\)regular, we obtain immediately that \(G_{0}\) is weakly connected. Note that for each \((x,y)\in E(G_{0})\),
Therefore,
By Theorem 3.3, we have \(\operatorname{card}(\operatorname{Fix}(f))\leq 1\). Using Lemma 4.3, T has at most one best proximity point. The proof is complete. □
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Acknowledgements
The author is thankful to Mahasarakham University for financial support. Furthermore, I would like to thank all reviewers for their comments and suggestions, which enhance the presentation of the paper.
Funding
This research project is financially supported by Mahasarakham University (First International Publication 2021).
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Ardsalee, P. A remark on Jleli–Samet’s best proximity point theorems for αψcontraction mappings. Fixed Point Theory Algorithms Sci Eng 2023, 6 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1186/s1366302300745y
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s1366302300745y